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  • iPoster: Phenotyping Slc4a11 Knock-Out Mouse Model of Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy (CHED)

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    In this study, we examined homozygous Slc4a11 knock-out (KO) C57BL/6 mice with a targeted deletion of exons 9 to 13 of the murine Slc4a11 gene as a model for Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy. Slc4a11 KO mouse recapitulates diffuse corneal edema seen in CHED, with ground glass appearance under light microscopy and with progression monitored longitudinally via AS-OCT. Histologically, edematous corneal stroma, uniformly thickened Descemet’s membrane with increased auto-fluorescence and vacuolated corneal endothelium are all present in Slc4a11 KO mouse cornea.

    Purpose: Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy (CHED) is characterized by presentation at or soon after birth of diffuse corneal edema with bilateral involvement, and without other significant developmental abnormalities of the anterior segment. CHED can either be progressive or non-progressive. CHED is recognized as an anomalous development of neural crest origin corneal endothelium during or after fifth month of gestation. Histologically, the diffusely edematous corneal stroma accounts for the marked increase in corneal thickness observed clinically. Uniform thickening of Descemet’s membrane and vacuolation of corneal endothelium are characteristic histological findings of CHED. Additionally, marked epithelium thinning with variability of cell layer numbers, focal loss of polarity and intracellular edema especially at the base of epithelium were considered secondary in nature. The genetic loci for CHED has been mapped to 20p13 and SLC4A11 mutations were reported to cause CHED. Since then, 74 mutations in 17 of the 19 coding exons of SLC4A11 have been identified thus far. In this study, we examined homozygous Slc4a11 knock-out (KO) C57BL/6 mice with a targeted deletion of exons 9 to 13 of the murine Slc4a11 gene as a model for CHED.

    Method: Mouse cornea edema was monitored by light microscopy and anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT, iVue) at 12 weeks and 40 weeks. Histological cornea sections (40 weeks) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and imaged with AxioImager M1 microscope (Zeiss).

    Results: Slc4a11 KO mouse recapitulates diffuse corneal edema seen in CHED, with ground glass appearance under light microscopy and with progression monitored longitudinally via AS-OCT. Histologically, edematous corneal stroma, uniformly thickened Descemet’s membrane with increased auto-fluorescence and vacuolated corneal endothelium are all present in Slc4a11 KO mouse cornea. Furthermore, secondary corneal epithelium changes are also present, which include various degrees of epithelium thinning with loss of superficial squamous cells, basal epithelial cell edema and loss of polarity accompanied with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Conclusion: In summary, Slc4a11 KO C57BL/6 mouse provides a good animal model for CHED.

    Wenlin Zhang, MD, PhD

    Postdoctoral Fellow, Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA

    Dr. Wenlin Zhang, received her PhD from Indiana University School of Optometry Vision Science program (2016), is currently continuing her work with SLC4A11 and Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy in Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA. Dr. Zhang was a recipient of 2016 William C. Ezell Fellowship and is a fellow of American Academy of Optometry.

    Diego G. Ogando, PhD

    Research Associate, Indiana University School of Optometry

    Dr. Diego Ogando received his M.S. in Biology from the University of Buenos Aires (1996) and Ph.D in Biology from the University of Buenos Aires (2002). Dr. Ogando is currently working as a Research Associate in molecular mechanisms of corneal dystrophies in School of Optometry, Indiana Universty. Dr Ogando is a member of Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and a member of the American Physiological Society.

    Joseph A Bonanno, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Professor and Dean, Indiana University School of Optometry

    Dr. Joseph Bonanno received his B.A in Biology from the University of Pennsylvania (1975), M.S. in Molecular Biology (1977), O.D. (1981), and Ph.D. in Physiological Optics (1987) from the University of California, Berkeley.  Dr. Bonanno is a fellow of the American Academy of Optometry, a member of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, and a member of the American Physiological Society. Dr. Bonanno was appointed dean of the School of Optometry in October 2010.

  • iPoster: Measurement of Fluorescein concentration in the tear film by image analysis and tear sampling

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    Two methods to estimate the concentration of fluorescein in the inferior meniscus. Knowledge of this will serve as a surrogate to estimate the concentration of salt molecules dissolved in the tear film which is considered to increase with an increase in evaporation during TBU.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop methods to measure fluorescein (FL) concentration by image analysis of the inferior meniscus and by direct measurement of small tear samples.

    Methods: An eye meniscus model was constructed to mimic the inferior meniscus. Five microliters of various FL concentrations were imaged on a slit lamp biomicroscope. Images were converted to grayscale and pixel intensity measured by a custom MATLAB program. To calibrate tear sample data, fluorescence intensity of 10 microliter samples of known concentrations were measured on an RT- PCR (Real time polymerase chain reaction). Following instillation of 2% FL, the same methods as above were used to image the inferior meniscus of one eye of 8 human subjects. FL concentrations were calculated and compared to concentrations measured spifrom tear samples. 

    Results: Fluorescence intensity measured by the slit lamp biomicroscope image analysis reached its maximum at the 0.07% concentration and then rapidly decreased due to concentration self-quenching. A similar pattern was reached with PCR data, with a maximum at 0.07%FL. FL concentrations of 0.6%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.14 and 0.07%, yielded average pixel intensity values of 9.00, 18.20, 35.40, 74.38 and 102.15 (image analysis) and Rpre (Initial fluorescence from pre-read) values of, 3762, 5487, 9369, 20461 and 23027. For human tear measures, there was a high correlation in FL concentrations between the two methods (r=0.87, Pearson’s). 

    Conclusions: These methods showed high agreement and thus have potential for measuring FL concentrations in the tear film from the inferior meniscus. During TBU, as visualized via tear film fluorescence, both FL concentration and tear film thickness are unknown. Knowledge of FL concentration within the tear film before TBU begins allows better estimation of relative tear film thickness changes during TBU. 

    Deborah Antwi

    PhD Student at Indiana University, School of Optometry

    I am Deborah Antwi, the 5th born of seven children of my parents. I was born in Sunyani in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana and trained as an Optometrist at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Ghana). I worked as an Optometrist for one year during with most of our patients presented with complains of dry eye. With majority of our patients suffering from dry eye disease, I developed an interest to join, teach and lead future efforts to understand the causes of dry eye related pathology, and to develop methods for improved diagnosis and treatment.

    Ashley Ryckman, BSc

    Indiana University School of Optometry

    Jenna Troiani, BSc

    Indiana University School of Optometry

    Ziwei Wu, PhD

    Indiana University School of Optometry

    Carolyn Begley, OD, MS, FAAO

    Indiana University School of Optometry

    Dr. Carolyn Begley’s clinical research has spanned a wide variety of topics in the area of cornea, contact lenses, and allergy, although her main focus in the last 12 years has been dry eye. Her training includes immunology and cell biology (NEI post-doc, 1988-89) and substantial research experience in tear film and ocular surface imaging, optics and vision, psychophysics, symptom questionnaires and sensory measures, measurement of blink rate and velocity, and fluorescence measures of the tear film. She has received numerous awards, including the Garland M. Clay Award from the American Academy of Optometry for her most cited paper, Characteristics of corneal staining in hydrogel contact lens wearers. She has served as a consultant and received numerous research grants from the major optical and pharmaceutical companies in the vision care field. She is currently funded by the National Eye Institute for a project examining tear instability as a unifying mechanism for dry eye symptoms. Dr. Begley has lectured around the world and published numerous papers and book chapters in the field of dry eye, keratoconus, ocular allergy, and contact lenses. 

  • iPoster: Relation between dietary fat intake and meibum lipids

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    o Dietary saturated fats have been linked to inflammation through toll-like receptor 4, both of which are involved in dry eye. Our data suggest that differential lipid expression is detectable between high, medium, and low intake ratios of saturated fat to unsaturated fat. Further, those with high intake ratios showed a 3.61-times increased association with aqueous-deficient dry eye relative to those with low intake ratios.

    Purpose: Little is known about lipid production in the meibomian glands and whether it is influenced by the types of dietary fat consumed (saturated or unsaturated). Highly saturated lipid mixtures have higher melting points and thus increased viscosity compared to unsaturated mixtures. We hypothesize that diets with a high ratio of saturated/unsaturated fat (fats/fatu) will show differential meibum lipid expression compared to those with a low fats/fatu.

    Methods: Sixty-six postmenopausal women with and without DE were included. Each subject completed a Vio Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate dietary intakes of fats and fatu. The subject pool was divided into three equal groups (tertiles) of low, medium, and high intake ratios of fats/fat­u. Meibum samples were dissolved in chloroform/methanol, diluted 50-fold, and directly infused into a high-resolution maXis 4G UHR-QTOF mass spectrometer in positive mode. The resultant peaks were analyzed by volcano plots for pairwise comparisons between all three fats/fatu tertiles.

    Results: Across all subjects, the fats/fat­u ratios ranged from 0.31 – 1.61 with tertile means of 0.41 ± 0.05 (low), 0.53 ± 0.03 (medium), and 0.77 ±0.23 (high). Based on mass spectral analysis, differential lipid expression was detected across tertiles with thresholds of p < 0.05 and fold-change (FC) > 1.05. The largest tertile of fats/fatu was associated with differential expression of 29 lipid species, all unsaturated. Specifically, there was a decrease in wax esters (mean FC = 0.89 ± 0.04, p < 0.05) and an increase in diesters (mean FC = 1.17 ± 0.03, p < 0.04). There was no significant difference in the abundance of the saturated lipids (cholesteryl esters) between tertiles.

    Conclusions: For normals and DE subjects, meibum composition varies with the dietary ratio of fats/fatu. Further investigation of dietary fats and their relation to meibum lipid expression and synthesis is needed.

    Jillian Meadows, OD, MS, FAAO

    Clinical Assistant Professor

    Jillian F. Ziemanski, OD, MS, FAAO, is a Clinical Assistant Professor at the UAB School of Optometry. She completed her MS in 2011 and her OD in 2012 from Ohio State University. She then completed her residency at the San Francisco VA Medical Center in 2013. She now teaches, practices, and researches at the UAB School of Optometry, where she is also in the late stages of completing her PhD in dry eye and Sjӧgren’s syndrome.

    Jianzhong Chen, PhD

    Assistant Professor, University of Alabama Birmingham School of Optometry

    Dr. Jianzhong Chen is an Assistant Professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Optometry since 2014. His current research interests include identifying and quantifying tear lipids related to dry eye diseases by instrumental analytical chemistry. Prior to coming to UAB, he was a Scientist of the Air Force Research Laboratory and worked as a Visiting Scientist at the Ohio State University. Dr. Chen received his PhD in analytical chemistry from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and completed his postdoctoral trainings at University of Michigan-Ann Arbor and Washington State University.

    Kari Basso, PhD

    Director Mass Spectrometry Research and Education Center

    Dr. Basso is the Director of Mass Spectrometry Research and Education Center at the University of Florida. Her expertise is in mass spectrometry based proteomics and lipidomics. She has applied this expertise to studying the tear film at the molecular level. The goal is to understand how the lipids and proteins change under different dry eye diseases to identify possible biomarkers and develop effective treatments.

    Jason Nichols, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Professor, University of Alabama at Birmingham

    With over 15 years of experience in ocular surface research, emphasizing in contact lenses and dry eye disease, Dr. Jason Nichols currently serves as Assistant Vice President for Industry Research Development and Professor at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. He had previously served as Professor and Operational Director for The Ocular Surface Institute at the University of Houston College of Optometry and Associate Professor (tenured) at The Ohio State University. Trained as a clinician–scientist, Dr. Nichols has been affiliated with numerous clinical studies and trials associated with the anterior segment. He has a particular interest in developing non–invasive optical methodologies associated with understanding tear film and ocular surface structure in-vivo, in addition to pairing these technologies with basic laboratory techniques to try to correlate function with structure. He also has research interests in technology development, specifically as it relates to both devices and pharmaceuticals including things such as care solutions, artificial tears, and treatments for dry eye and meibomian gland disease. He received his undergraduate degree in Biology from Hope College (1995), and Doctor of Optometry (1999), Master’s in Public Health (2003, epidemiology) and PhD (2004) all from the Ohio State University. 

    Kelly Nichols, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Dean and Professor, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry

    Kelly K. Nichols received her Doctor of Optometry degree from the University of California at Berkeley, completed a residency in ocular disease at Omni Eye Specialists of Colorado, and earned her MPH in biostatistics and PhD in vision science at Ohio State University. In 2014, Dr. Nichols was named Dean of the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Prior to that appointment, Dr. Nichols was a professor at the University of Houston, College of Optometry, where she co-founded and served as Executive Director for the Ocular Surface Institute, a translational research institute focused on bench-to-bedside research on ocular surface conditions. Earlier, Dr. Nichols was faculty at the Ohio State University College of Optometry. She currently serves as a medical advisor to the Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation, has been an executive board member for the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society, and a founding member of Ocular Surface Society of Optometry. A leading expert in dry eye disease, Dr. Nichols is or has been on the editorial boards of the journals Optometry and Vision Science, and The Ocular Surface, and is extensively published. Her research interests encompass meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye in menopause, dry eye diagnostics and therapeutics, and tear proteomics and lipidomics.

  • iPoster: Conjunctival cell morphology and goblet cell density in soft contact lens wearers

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    This study investigated differences in CCM and GCD between CL-covered conjunctival areas and uncovered areas and examined the effects of soft CL replacement.

    Purpose: Conjunctival cell morphology (CCM) and goblet cell density (GCD) have been used to study ocular surface inflammation in dry eye and contact lens (CL) wear. It has been reported that GCD is lowest near the limbus. Change in GCD with CL wearer is inconclusive. Neither CCM nor GCD has been investigated near the limbus under a soft CL. This study investigated differences in CCM and GCD between CL-covered conjunctival areas and uncovered areas and examined the effects of soft CL replacement.

    Methods: 35 (21F: 14M, 24±2 years) healthy soft CL wearers completed the study. Two conjunctival impression cytology samples (CICs) were collected; one from temporal conjunctiva2) and epithelial squamous metaplasia (modified Nelson and Wright grading 0-3) were assessed. Differences by area were analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess differences between daily disposable (n=13) and reusable CL wearers (n=22).

    Results: Lower GCD was found in CL-covered compared to uncovered (69±49 vs 271±162 cells/mm2, P < 0.001) areas. Higher metaplasia was found in CL-covered compared to uncovered (0.6±0.4 vs 0.1±0.2, P < 0.001) areas. Higher GCD (92±55 vs 55±40 cells/mm2, P = 0.04) and less metaplasia (0.4±0.3 vs 0.7±0.4, P=0.01) were found in CL-covered areas of daily disposable wearers compared to reusable CL wearers. There were no differences in metaplasia or GCD of uncovered areas between lens replacement groups.

    Conclusion: CCM and GCD were compromised in the CL-covered area for reusable CL wearers. This finding suggests the CL-covered conjunctival area may be impacted by CL wear, solutions or edge design. 

    Cecilia Chao, MOptom, PhD, FAAO

    State University of New York, College of Optometry

    Blanka Golebiowski, PhD

    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW

    Fiona Stapleton, MCOptom, PhD, FAAO

    Head of School, School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney

    Professor Fiona Stapleton was awarded her PhD from City University and Moorfields Eye Hospital in London for her research on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of contact lens-related disease and completed a post-doctoral fellowship at University College London. Fiona is a clinical scientist with expertise in epidemiology and clinical research in the fields of corneal infection, dry eye and contact lens related disease. She holds numerous memberships and executive affiliations with scientific organizations, has over 200 peer-reviewed publications, has contributed 19 chapters to textbooks and published one book.

    Kathryn Richdale, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Associate Professor, University of Houston College of Optometry

    Dr. Kathryn Richdale joined the University of Houston College Of Optometry in 2017 as an Associate Professor. She received her OD, PhD, and Cornea and Contact Lens Advanced Practice Fellowship from The Ohio State University. She teaches, practices and conducts research primarily in the areas of refractive error and cornea and contact lenses.

  • iPoster: The Presentation of Sjogren’s Disease in North American Optometric Practices

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    The purpose of this multi-center, cross-sectional retrospective chart review was to describe the signs and symptoms of dry eye in Sjögren’s Syndrome patients as they presented in 6 North American clinical sites. The most common presenting symptom was dryness and the most common sign was corneal fluorescein staining, although corneal staining varied widely and was not severe in most patients. Regardless of symptoms, topical lubricants were highly utilized in management (used over 90% of the time in SS patients).

    Purpose: To describe the symptoms and signs of dry eye (DE) in Sjogren’s Disease (SD) patients as they present in optometric practices.

    Methods: SD charts from 6 North American clinical sites were identified by a DE diagnostic code. Starting with the first visit after diagnosis of SD, variables were recorded including: age, sex, year of diagnosis, symptoms & signs of DE and treatments. Various corneal staining scales were used across sites that were harmonized to a global staining score (0-100). Data from the 1st observed visit was analyzed.

    Results: 123 charts were included: 114(92.7%) female, average age: 56.3±11.7yrs (range 24-84), average time since diagnosis: 2.5 ±3.8 yrs (range 0-15). Symptoms of DE were recorded in 105(85%) charts. The most common symptoms were dryness (97/105=64.6%), irritation (44/105=42%), burning (33/105=31%), vision problems (34/105=22.7%) and photophobia (17/105=16%). 46%(69/105) of patients reported more than one symptom. Topical lubricants were the most common treatment and were used in 88/97(90.7%) of patients with symptoms of dryness, 40/44(90.9%) with irritation, 31/33(94%) with burning, 31/34(91%) with vision problems, and 17/17(100%) with photophobia. Corneal fluorescein staining was the most prevalent sign; recorded in 120 charts (98%) and present in 85 (69.3%) patients. The average corneal staining score of the worst eye was 28±29 (range 0-75). Other signs were recorded with less regularity; Schirmer I (28/105=18.7%), Schirmer II (9/105=6%), phenol red (19/105=12.7%), conjunctival staining (18/105=12%).

    Conclusions: SD patients presented with a variety of DE symptoms and signs. The most common symptom was dryness and sign was corneal fluorescein staining. The degree of corneal staining varied widely and was not severe in most patients. Topical lubricants were highly utilized in management. Future studies with standardized testing and prospective analysis will help to elucidate the course of DE in SD.

    Jennifer Harthan, OD, FSLS, FAAO

    Associate Professor, Illinois College of Optometry and Chief, Cornea Center for Clinical Excellence, Illinois Eye Institute

    Jennifer S. Harthan, OD graduated from the Illinois College of Optometry in 2006 and completed a residency in Cornea and Contact Lenses the following year. Dr. Harthan is currently an Associate Professor at ICO and Chief of the Cornea Center for Clinical Excellence. Dr. Harthan is a Fellow of the AAO, Fellow of the Scleral Lens Education Society, and Diplomate of the American Board of Optometry. She has numerous publications on the topics of complex contact lens fits and ocular surface disease.  Dr. Harthan is actively involved in ocular surface disease and contact lens research and lectures on these topics at national meetings.

    Sruthi Srinivasan, BSOptom, PhD, FAAO

    Research Assistant Professor, Senior Clinical Scientist and Clinical Research Manager

    Dr. Sruthi Srinivasan is a Research Assistant Professor, Senior Clinical Scientist and a Clinical Research Manager at the Centre for Contact Lens Research (CCLR), School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Canada. She is actively involved in various clinical trials conducted at the CCLR. Sruthi graduated from the Elite School of Optometry, India and obtained her PhD in Vision Science from the University of Waterloo, Canada in 2008. After her PhD, Sruthi did her Post -Doctoral Fellowship at the Ohio State University, College of Optometry. Sruthi is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry and is also serving as a Scientific Program Committee member of the American Academy of Optometry. She serves as a referee for several Ophthalmology & Optometry journals.

    Mira Acs, OD, FAAO

    Optometrist, Toronto Eye Care

    Graduated from University of Waterloo, School of Optometry, in 1984. Served as President of the Ontario Association of Optometrists in 1993 for 2 years. Currently the President of the Vision Instittue of Canada. Since 2010 has been a Professional Development Consultant for Alcon Canada. Fellowship in the American Academy of Optometry attained in 1987 and serving for the past 3 years on the Admittance Committee of the Academy.

    Melissa Barnett, OD, FAAO

    Principal Optometrist, UC Davis Eye Center

    Dr. Melissa Barnett is a Principal Optometrist at the UC Davis Eye Center in Sacramento. She is internationally recognized key opinion leader, specializing in anterior segment disease and specialty contact lenses. Dr. Barnett lectures and publishes extensively on topics including dry eye, anterior segment disease, contact lenses and creating a healthy balance between work and home life for women in optometry. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry and serves on the Board of Women of Vision (WOV), Gas Permeable Lens Institute (GPLI) and The Scleral Lens Education Society (SLS).  Dr. Barnett is a spokesperson for the California Optometric Association and a guest lecturer for the STAPLE program. In her spare time she enjoys cooking, yoga, hiking and spending time with her husband, Todd Erickson, also an optometrist, and two sons, Alex (8) and Drew (6).

    Charles Edmonds, OD, FAAO

    Partner of Edmonds, Husz & Pemberton Eye Center

    Charles R. Edmonds OD, FAAO, received his BS in biology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1972, and his Doctor of Optometry from Pennsylvania College of Optometry in 1976. He is past president of the Arizona Optometric Association and the Arizona State Board of Optometry and was awarded the Arizona Optometrist of the year in 1997. 
    He is the founding partner of Edmonds, Husz, and Pemberton Eye Center in Tucson, Arizona which is a contact lens specialty practice for irregular, pathological and post surgical corneas. He has been a clinical investigator for the contact lens industry for the past 32 years and has lectured both nationally and internationally and published numerous articles on contact lenses, Keratoconus, specular microscopy, and instrument technology. His is a diplomate of the Cornea and Contact lens Section of the American Academy of Optometry, Adjunct Assistant clinical professor for Pacific College of Optometry in Forest Grove , Oregon, and Peer Reviewer for Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.

    Larisa Johnson-Tong, OD, FAAO

    Director of Specialty Contact Lens Services, Visions Optometry, Sacramento, CA

    After obtaining a degree in biomedical engineering at Marquette University, Dr. Johnson-Tong attended optometry school at the University of CA, Berkeley.  She went on to complete a fellowship at UCLA’s Jules Stein Eye Institute in cornea and contact lenses.  She has worked in Academic and private practice settings.  She is currently in a private practice in Sacramento, CA providing primary eye care care services, therapeutic contact lens fittings and dry eye treatments.

    Bart Pemberton, OD, FAAO

    Partner of Edmonds, Husz & Pemberton Eye Center

    Graduated University of California at Berkeley School of Optometry; Completed Residency in Hospital-Based Optometry at Amarillo VA Medical Center; Partner of Edmonds, Husz & Pemberton Eye Center: one of the largest contact lens and primary eye care practices in Southern Arizona, with an emphasis on the care of patients with irregular corneas. Member of Board of Directors of the Arizona Optometric Association; Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry, Member of Fellows Doing Research; Member of the Contact Lens Cornea Section of the AOA; Past president of the Southern Arizona Optometric Society; Assistant Den Leader for local Cub Scout Pack; Eagle Scout; Member of the Knights of Columbus; Happily married with three young children

    Dominik Papinski, PhD

    Head of Statistics and Data Management

    Dominik Papinski is passionate about data analysis, visualization, data management and research. Dominik has recently pursued statistics and data management in the area of clinical research. Covering topics from data integration, data management plans to statistical analysis plans. 

    Dominik completed his PhD at McMaster (2010) in the area of urban/transport geography, he has worked at Wilfrid Laurier in the field of m-health and cutting edge activity-travel algorithm research and development. 

    Barbara Caffery, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Optometrist, Toronto Eye Care

    Barbara Caffery graduated from the New England College of Optometry in 1977. In 2009, she completed her PhD program in Vision Science at the University of Waterloo. Barbara presently practices at Toronto Eye Care in downtown Toronto. She also participates in two hospital based clinics: the University Health Network Multidisciplinary Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic and the Therapeutic Contact Lens Clinic at Kensington Eye Institute. Barbara is presently the president elect of American Academy of Optometry. She also serves on the Medical Advisory panel of the Sjogren’s Society of Canada. 

  • iPoster: Comparison of Dry Eye Tests Between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Age-Matched Females

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    The purpose of this poster is to quantify the strength of association of dry eye (DE) diagnostic tests to DE symptoms in an age-matched female cohort.

    PURPOSE: To quantify the strength of association of dry eye (DE) diagnostic tests to DE symptoms in an age-matched female cohort.

    METHODS: Twenty females symptomatic of DE (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI, ≥ 13) were age-matched with 20 asymptomatic females (OSDI < 13) in this cross-sectional study. Non-invasive tear breakup time (NIBUT), ocular staining, meibum quality, number of obstructed glands, lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE), Marx’s line placement, eyelid margin score, Schirmer’s test, meibography, and visual acuity were compared between the two groups.

    RESULTS: Twenty participant-pairs completed the study. The age (median/interquartile range(IQR)) of the symptomatic group was (60/15) and the asymptomatic group was (62/15). The diagnostic tests (median/IQR, p-value) that were significantly different between the symptomatic group vs. the asymptomatic group were OSDI (35.4/35.4 vs. 3.1/6.7, p < 0.01), NIBUT (2.1s/0.7s vs. 3.0s/3.0s, p = 0.01), meibum quality (3.0/0.0 grade units vs. 2.0/1.0 grade units, p < 0.01), number of obstructed glands (7.0/2.0 glands vs. 5.0/4.8 glands, p < 0.01), and ocular staining (5.5/3.8 grade units vs. 0.5/1.0 grade units, p < 0.01). The diagnostic tests (area under curve (AUC), odds ratio (OR)) that were most strongly associated with DE symptoms were ocular staining (0.93, 5.0), number of glands obstructed (0.79, 2.6), meibum quality (0.76, 2.4), and NIBUT (0.74, 3.2) (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups for the other DE diagnostic tests (all p > 0.05), and similarly, no significant association to DE symptoms (all p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The diagnostic tests that were most strongly associated with DE symptoms in older women were ocular staining, meibum quality, number of glands obstructed, and tear film stability.

    William Ngo, OD, PhD, FAAO

    University of Alabama at Birmingham

    Sruthi Srinivasan, BSOptom, PhD, FAAO

    Research Assistant Professor, Senior Clinical Scientist and Clinical Research Manager

    Dr. Sruthi Srinivasan is a Research Assistant Professor, Senior Clinical Scientist and a Clinical Research Manager at the Centre for Contact Lens Research (CCLR), School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Canada. She is actively involved in various clinical trials conducted at the CCLR. Sruthi graduated from the Elite School of Optometry, India and obtained her PhD in Vision Science from the University of Waterloo, Canada in 2008. After her PhD, Sruthi did her Post -Doctoral Fellowship at the Ohio State University, College of Optometry. Sruthi is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry and is also serving as a Scientific Program Committee member of the American Academy of Optometry. She serves as a referee for several Ophthalmology & Optometry journals.

    Lyndon W Jones, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    Lyndon Jones graduated in Optometry from the University of Wales in 1985 and gained his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the Biomaterials Research Unit at Aston University, Birmingham, UK in 1998. He holds three of the higher clinical awards granted by the UK College of Optometrists, is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry, in which he is a Diplomate in Cornea and Contact Lenses, and is also a Fellow of both the International Association of Contact Lens Educators (IACLE) and the British Contact Lens Association (BCLA). His research interests primarily focus on the interaction of novel and existing contact lens materials with the ocular environment, dry eye and ocular drug delivery. 

    He has authored over 350 refereed and professional papers, one text-book and given over 750 invited lectures at conferences worldwide, in over 30 countries. He has been awarded over 20 national and international awards, including the 2014 “Glenn Fry Award” from the AAO, 2014 “Donald Korb Award” from the American Optometric Association, 2013 “Max Schapero Award” from the Cornea and Contact Lens Section of the AAO and the 2011 “George Giles Memorial Lectureship” from the UK College of Optometrists.

  • iPoster: Association between Rheumatoid Arthritis Severity and Dry Eye Disease Symptoms

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    We completed a prospective, observational, multi-center clinical study involving 286 adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis recruited from non-eye-care settings. Our results revealed a strong association between rheumatoid arthritis severity (DAS28) and dry eye disease symptoms (OSDI). 

    Purpose: To examine the association between RA severity and DED symptoms.

    Methods: This prospective, observational multi-center clinical study involved 286 adult patients with RA. General demographic information, Ocular Surface Disease Index® (OSDI), and a Disease Activity Score (DAS28) were obtained. The following serological lab tests were performed: Cyclic Citruillinated Peptide IgG antibody (CCP), Rheumatoid Factor (RF), and C - Reactive Protein (CRP). The following dry eye tests were performed: tear osmolarity (TO), tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal/conjunctival staining, and Schirmer test (ST) without anesthetic. The association between DED symptoms and RA severity was assessed by calculating Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between DAS28 and OSDI.

    Results: Data from the 286 RA patients (243 female, mean age: 58 years) was analyzed. Mean rheumatologic test results were: DAS28 3.04 +/- 1.40, CCP IgG 91.77 +/- 105.80, CRP 0.58 +/- 1.58, and RF 77.44 +/- 109.73. Mean dry eye test results were: OSDI 37.21 +/- 25.54, TO 316.26 +/- 16.32, TBUT 4.20 +/- 2.05, staining 4.45 +/- 4.52, and ST 11.15 +/- 8.99. 

    The Spearman’s correlation coefficient between DAS28 findings and OSDI symptom survey findings was 0.2234 (p=0.0002). 

    Conclusion: In this population of RA patients recruited from non-eye care settings there is a strong association between RA severity and DED symptoms. 

    Jasmine Wong Yumori, OD, FAAO

    Associate Professor, Western University of Health Science, College of Optometry

    Dr. Jasmine Yumori is a board-certified optometrist who is an Associate Professor in the College of Optometry and serves as a Course Faculty member for the Interprofessional Education courses at Western University of Health Sciences. Prior to joining WesternU, Dr. Yumori completed a residency in geriatric and primary care optometry at the West Los Angeles VA Health Care Center, earned her fellowship from the American Academy of Optometry, and previously worked in a group private practice setting. Dr. Yumori completed her undergraduate training with honors at UC Berkeley and is an honors graduate of the UC Berkeley School of Optometry.

    Eric Lee, MD

    Medical Director of Inland Rheumatology Clinical Trials

    Dr. Eric Lee is a rheumatologist in private practice at Inland Rheumatology and Osteoporosis Medical Group.  In addition to patient care, he currently serves as the Medical Director of Inland Rheumatology Clinical Trials, affiliated with his clinical practice in Upland, California.  His areas of interests, both in clinical practice and clinical trials, include rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, and Sjogren's syndrome.  He has over 15 years of experience in clinical trials where he served as the principal investigators and consultant to diverse pharmaceutical companies.  He graduated from Cornell Medical College and completed his residency and fellowship at University of Irvine Medical Center.  

    Tina Escobedo, DNP, RN, FNP-BC

    Western University of Health Sciences

    Dat Trinh, DO, MSHPE

    Chair of the Department of Family Medicine

    Dr. Dat Trinh is the Chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences/College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific (WesternU/COMP). Dr. Trinh received his medical degree from WesternU/COMP. He has Bachelor of Science degrees in Biology and Chemistry from University of California Irvine. He also has a Master of Science in Health Professions Education.

    Dr. Trinh’s medical practice consists of chronic care and health promotion. His research interests include emotional intelligence, inter-professional clinical trials, and osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    Gillian Hollands, OD, MS

    Western University of Health Sciences

    Dr. Gillian Hollands received her Doctor of Optometry degree from the University of Waterloo School of Optometry in Ontario, Canada and has completed a Master of Science degree in Instructional Technology from Bloomsburg University in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. After graduation from Waterloo she taught at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in Manchester, England. Dr Hollands has been an associate in the Department of Ophthalmology in Danville, Pennsylvania at the Geisinger Medical Center, a rural tertiary care facility; an optometric educator and research associate as a faculty member at the Universities of Waterloo and Missouri-St Louis, as well as, Western University of Health Sciences Colleges of Optometry; and an optometric physician in private practice.

    Robert Gordon, OD, FAAO, FNAP

    Professor and Associate Dean of Clinical Affairs, Western University of Health Science, College of Optometry

    Dr. Gordon is a Professor and Associate Dean of Clinical Affairs at the College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences. Prior to this, Dr. Gordon was in private practice in Encino, Ca. for over 30 years and was an Associate Professor at the Southern California College of Optometry. He has been the President of the California Optometric Association and the Founder of the California Vision Project. Dr. Gordon has been a clinical investigator for numerous contact lens manufacturers. He has lectured both nationally and internationally and presented at the First International Conference on Visual Disabilities in Children at the United Nations.

    Cheng-Tong Wang, MS

    University of California, Irvine

    Thang Le, MD

    Inland Rheumatology and Osteoporosis Medical Group

    Anthony Hou, MD

    Inland Rheumatology and Osteoporosis Medical Group

    Michael Finley, DO

    Western University of Health Sciences

  • iPoster: Day-to-Day Variability in Subjective Acceptance of Contact Lens Wear

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the day-to-day variability in subjective acceptance of two types of daily disposable contact lenses in 60 habitual wearers. The individual subject scores for overall satisfaction and satisfaction with comfort, vision and handling varied significantly over the 20 days of lens wear evaluated. This variability is most likely attributable to wearer activities and environmental changes and should be taken into account in clinical studies and by eye care practitioners.

    Purpose: There is an expectation that subjective acceptance (SA) in successful contact lens (CL) wearers is similar every day; however, the consistency of performance is not generally evaluated. The aim of the study was to quantify the day-to-day variability in SA in a group of successful CL wearers.

    Methods: SA was recorded over 4 weeks of daily wear in a group of established daily disposable (DD) CL wearers: clariti® 1 day (C1D, n = 30) and 1-Day ACUVUE® Moist® (1DAM, n = 30). To control for undue influence of variation in daily activities the data were only analysed for the working days over the period. SA (overall, comfort, vision and handling) was recorded on a 5-point Likert scale (0: very dissatisfied to 4: very satisfied) at CL removal using SmartSurvey™ a customized smart phone / e-mail, time stamped, secure survey software. Day-to-day variability was measured by the within subject standard deviations of the responses received for the period.

    Results: DD was the population’s principal correction modality (C1D 5.8, 1DAM 5.9 days/week; C1D 11.6, 1DAM 12.6 hrs/day, p = 0.483) with comfortable wearing times (CWT) of 10.8 (C1D) and 9.6 (1DAM) hrs (p = 0.466).   The results (1264 total responses, minimum 20 per subject) showed similar day-to-day variability in SA for the two CLs: SA overall ½ a grade (C1D 0.57, 1DAM 0.61, p = 0.526), SA for comfort 2/3 of a grade (C1D 0.71, 1DAM 0.66, p = 0.526) and SA for vision ½ a grade (C1D 0.48, 1DAM 0.49, p = 0.820)

    Conclusion: Remotely conducted daily questionnaires constitute a convenient and sensitive tool to quantify the day-to-day variability in subjective satisfaction with contact lens wear. There is a significant day-to-day variation in SA even in successful CL wearers. We are hypothesising that this variation is associated with changes in wearers’ circumstances from day-to-day. This variation needs to be taken into consideration in studies assessing subjective responses and by ECPs when evaluating patients’ CL satisfaction.

    Kathy Dumbleton, PhD, MCOptom, FAAO

    Associate Clinical Professor, School of Optometry, University of California Berkeley

    Dr. Kathy Dumbleton graduated in Optometry from the University of Wales and received an MSc and PhD in Vision Science from the University of Waterloo, Canada. Kathy is Immediate Past President of the AOF, a Diplomate of the Cornea, Contact Lens & Refractive Technologies Section of the AAO, a fellow of the British Contact Lens Association, and a council member of the International Society for Contact Lens Research. Her research interests include the assessment of contact lens discomfort, compliance with contact lens wear, dry eye and tear film assessment.

    Trisha Patel, BSc(Hons), CCRC

    Ocular Technology Group - International

    Michel Guillon, PhD, FCOptom, FAAO

    Director, Ocular Technology Group and Professor at Aston University

    Prof Michel Guillon is a Director of Ocular Technology Group - International and Michel Guillon Sports Vision and Honorary Professor in The School of Life and Health Sciences at Aston University. Prof Guillon is a consultant to several worldwide pharmaceutical and medical device companies in the ophthalmic field and a consultant to leading professional teams and athletes in the field of sports vision. Prof Guillon has presented over 150 papers or posters at national and international conferences, published over 60 scientific papers, co-edited a major text book on contact lenses with Professor Montague Ruben and contributed to 19 chapters in text books. Prof Guillon is a co-inventor on, thirty-one patents worldwide. His research activities cover a wide field of ophthalmic research, with particular emphasis on vision and optical performance of all modalities of vision correction including contact lenses and refractive surgery, clinical and biochemical analysis of the tear film and dry eye problems and vision strategy of elite athletes.

    John McNally, OD, FAAO

    Senior Director, Clinical Research at CooperVision, Inc.

    Dr. John McNally is currently a Senior Director, Clinical Research at CooperVision, Inc. in Pleasanton, California. He has over thirty years of international experience in executive management of product development for contact lens and lens care products, including clinical trials, regulatory affairs, new product development project management, professional services and quality assurance responsibilities. He is a graduate of the University Of California Berkeley School Of Optometry and has worked as a research scientist at contact lens research centers at University of New South Wales in Australia and the University of Waterloo in Canada.

  • iPoster: Contact Lens Risk Survey meta-analysis of individuals aged 12 to 70 years

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    This was a secondary analysis to explore the relationship between patient age and known or potential corneal infiltrative event (CIE) risk factors in a large cohort of soft contact lens wearers. The age for peak risk of CIEs is less than age 25 years and greater than 50 years, yet individuals between ages 25-50 were more likely to employ risky behaviors such as topping-off or wearing lenses overnight.

    Introduction: The contact lens risk survey (CLRS) was developed to study behaviors and exposures associated with corneal infiltrative events (CIEs). This meta-analysis of soft contact lens (SCL) wearers explored the relationship between patient age and known and potential CIE risk factors. 

    Methods: CLRS data from five studies were combined to evaluate response frequency by age. Data were available for 1889 subjects ages 12 to 76 yrs. Due to a small sample of individuals 70 years or older, the data were truncated at 70 years of age (N=1882). Logistic regression was used to identify the most appropriate relationship between survey response and age, allowing for up to a 4th order polynomial.

    Results: Overnight wear increased from age 12 to age 45 yrs, with a peak prevalence of 31.4%. Individuals younger or older than age 45 were more likely to report never or infrequently discarding LCP. Showering in CLs peaked at age 23 yrs with more than 50% reporting they “fairly often” or “always” shower with CLs. Rinsing lenses with tap water was stable across all ages and was reported “at least sometimes” by 10-15% of subjects. Bimodal distributions were found for replacement schedule (daily disposable (DD) vs weekly/monthly), having a previous red eye event, and the use of a peroxide lens care solution. Frequency of internet lens purchasing increased between age 13 (3.8%) and 29 (27.5%) and then plateaued. 

    Discussion: Studies have suggested that the peak prevalence of CIEs occurs in patients 50yrs. This meta-analysis suggests that the increased risk in these age groups could be associated with poor behaviors such as not discarding LCP and showering in CLs. However, risk factors such as overnight wear, internet purchase, use of multipurpose LCP, and use of non-DD lenses occurred most often in individuals between age 25 and 50. Thus, while still increasing the overall risk of a CIE, some behaviors and wear factors may not be related to the differences seen with age.

    Aaron Zimmerman, OD, MS, FAAO

    Associate Clinical Professor of Optometry, The Ohio State University College of Optometry

    Aaron Zimmerman is an Associate Professor of Clinical Optometry at The Ohio State University College of Optometry. He is the instructor of record for the lasers & advanced procedures course as well as the advanced contact lens lab. He is currently a member of the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study group and is a masked examiner for the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT-ART). He has investigated and published articles on contact lens adverse events, eye & head tracking in baseball, and safety of football related ocular protective devices.

    G. Lynn Mitchell, MAS, FAAO

    Associate Professor at The Ohio State University College of Optometry

    G. Lynn Mitchell, MAS, FAAO, is an Associate Professor in the Ohio State University (OSU) College of Optometry. She has served as Director of the Data Coordinating Center for three NEI-funded randomized clinical trials by the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group and all studies related to the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) Study Group. Ms. Mitchell teaches an introductory epidemiology & biostatistics course and a graduate level biostatistics course. She also provides statistical support for optometric researchers. Ms. Mitchell serves as reviewer for ophthalmic journals and is a Board Member for Vision Development and Rehabilitation

    Beth Kinoshita, OD, FAAO

    Director, Pacific Eye Clinic

    Dr. Kinoshita is an associate professor and serves as the Director of the Pacific Eye Clinic in Forest Grove and as an instructor in the Contact Lens courses. She is a graduate of the Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum and of the Contact Lens Residency Program at Pacific University. Dr. Kinoshita is a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (AAO) and a Diplomate in the Cornea, Contact Lens and Refractive Technologies Section of the AAO. She lectures and conducts research on topics related to contact lens complications and specialty contact lens fitting and design

    Heidi Wagner, OD, MPH, FAAO

    Professor of Clinical Optometry, The Ohio State University College of Optometry

    Heidi Wagner is a Professor of Clinical Optometry at the Ohio State University where she serves as the Director of Extern Programs. She received her Doctor of Optometry degree from the Ohio State University and her Master of Public Health degree from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She is a Diplomate in the Cornea, Contact Lenses & Refractive Technologies Section of the American Academy of Optometry as well as a Distinguished Practitioner and Fellow in the National Academies of Practice. She currently serves as Co-chair of the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study group.

    Dawn Lam, OD, FAAO

    Associate Professor at SCCO at Marshall B. Ketchum University.

    Dr. Dawn Lam is an Associate Professor at the Southern California College of Optometry (SCCO) at Marshall B. Ketchum University (MBKU). Dr. Lam received her Bachelors in Science and Masters in Science from the University of British Columbia. She received her Doctor of Optometry degree from Southern California College of Optometry. Dr. Lam completed her cornea and contact lens residency at the University of Houston, College of Optometry (2005). She has been a faculty member at SCCO since 2005.

    Luigina Sorbara, OD, MSc, FAAO

    Associate Professor

    Dr. Luigina Sorbara completed her M.Sc. degree in Physiological Optics in 1993 at the University of Waterloo. Since 1984, Gina has been Head of the Contact Lens Clinic and is now an Associate Professor. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Optometry and the British Contact Lens Association. She also has a Diplomate in Cornea, Contact Lenses and Refractive Therapies (AAO). Gina lectures in Advanced Contact Lens Fitting and aftercare and is actively involved in research at the School of Optometry and Vision Science. She is a member of the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth group actively engaged in defining risks related to contact lens events. She is also a member of a Biomedical Imaging group at the University of Waterloo specializing in Optical Coherence Tomography. Her current research interests are in speciality lens designs for keratoconus, corneal topography, fluorophotometry, clinical grading and clinical trials involving new lens materials, designs and care systems.

    Kathryn Richdale, OD, PhD, FAAO

    Associate Professor, University of Houston College of Optometry

    Dr. Kathryn Richdale joined the University of Houston College Of Optometry in 2017 as an Associate Professor. She received her OD, PhD, and Cornea and Contact Lens Advanced Practice Fellowship from The Ohio State University. She teaches, practices and conducts research primarily in the areas of refractive error and cornea and contact lenses.

  • iPoster: Diopsys® NOVA pattern electroretinogram characteristics associated with glaucoma progression

    Contains 2 Component(s)

    A retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) associated with glaucoma progression in patients receiving normal clinical care of their glaucoma.

    Purpose: To identify characteristics of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) associated with glaucoma progression in patients receiving normal clinical care of their glaucoma. 

    Methods: Clinical records from a single glaucoma subspecialty practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone at least one PERG exam using the contrast sensitivity fixed protocol of the Diopsys NOVA device. Inclusion criteria included adults with any form of glaucoma, one or more PERG reports available for review, and a sufficient number of perimetry exams using the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer to assess disease progression. Guided progression analysis trend analysis of the visual field data of qualifying patients was used to determine whether statistically significant (p < 5%) disease progression had occurred. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed for association with disease progression. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated to evaluate classifier accuracy of the parameters.

    Results: 44 eyes of 26 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 33 eyes demonstrated stability and 11 eyes experienced progression during the observation period, which ranged from 3-8yrs (mean: 5.8 ±1.5) and comprised 3-17 (mean: 11.9 ±3.8) visual field examinations. There was no significant difference in age or intraocular pressure between stable and progressing eyes. A higher proportion of men experienced progression than women (46% versus 16%, p =0.04). Eyes suffering progression tended to have a lower Mag D (stable: 0.63±0.25 μv; prog: 0.40±0.20 μv; p < 0.01) and a lower Mag D/Mag ratio (stable: 0.59±0.20; prog: 0.42±0.15; p = 0.01) under high contrast conditions than stable eyes. In addition, average RNFL thickness was significantly different between the two groups (stable: 78.75±19.51 μm; prog: 60.39±22.28 μm; p = 0.03). Receiver operating characteristic analysis reveals that each of these parameters offers good ability to discriminate between stable and progressing glaucoma patients.

    Conclusion: Diopsys NOVA PERG measurements were associated with glaucoma progression in a diverse cohort of well-managed glaucoma patients.

    David Wesley Juett

    3rd Year Student at the UIW Rosenburg School of Optometry

    Wesley is currently studying at The UIW Rosenberg School of Optometry located in San Antonio, Texas. He was the first student from RSO to deliver a stage presentation at an Academy meeting and is a student fellow of the American Academy of Optometry. Following graduation, he is interested in pursuing a residency in ocular disease. He would like to one day run a private practice somewhere in the Mountain West. He has an interest in research and intends to incorporate it into his practice. 

    Richard C Trevino, OD, FAAO

    Associate Professor at the Rosenberg School of Optometry

    Richard Trevino is an Associate Professor at the Rosenberg School of Optometry, where he has taught since 2010. He serves as Director of Residency Programs and Chief of the Ocular Health Service. In 2014, RSO launched a Glaucoma Center of Excellence under the direction of Dr Trevino, funded, in part, by a grant from Capital One, to provide glaucoma care, research and education. The grant enables the clinic to care for indigent patients who otherwise would be unable to afford treatment of their glaucoma. Dr Trevino practiced in the Veterans Administration for 13 years. He is a graduate of the Illinois College of Optometry and completed a residency in Primary Care Optometry at the Pennsylvania College of Optometry. He has held faculty and adjunct appointments at the University of Waterloo, State University of New York, and the New England College of Optometry.

    Carolyn Majcher, OD, FAAO

    Assistant Professor and Chief of the Retina Clinic at the Rosenburg School of Optometry University of the Incarnate Word

    Carolyn Majcher is a Doctor of Optometry and a Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry. She received her Doctorate of Optometry from the Pennsylvania College of Optometry at Salus University in 2011 and graduated Summa Cum Laude with advanced retinal competencies. In 2012, Dr. Majcher completed a primary care residency at the Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry concentrated in ocular disease management. She was one of four recipients awarded an Optometry Residency Matching Service Scholarship given to residents with the highest cumulative scores on all three parts of the National Board Examinations. Following completion of her residency, Dr. Majcher became and remains a full-time faculty member at the University of the Incarnate Word Rosenberg School of Optometry where she is an Assistant Clinical Professor and Director of Externship Programs. She is involved in didactic instruction of the 2nd and 3rd year glaucoma, posterior segment disease, and neuro-ophthalmic disease courses. She also participates in clinical instruction of 4th year students in the Ocular Disease Clinics and serves as chief of the Retina Service. Dr. Majcher’s research interests include ocular disease and retinal imaging

    Elizabeth Dosch

    3rd Year Student at the UIW Rosenburg School of Optometry

    N/A

    William Sponsel, MD, FAAO

    UIW Rosenberg School of Optometry

    N/A